164 000 km2


10,8 M


Tunisia’s climate undergoes various influences because of its geographical position. The North is dominated by a Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot, dry summers and mild and relatively rainy winters. The Centre and the Gulf of Gabes have a semi-arid climate, characterized by relatively high temperatures and low rainfall (200 to 400 mm per year). In the rest of the country there is an arid climate, characterized by high temperatures and intense ranges and by high and disparate rainfall, rarely exceeding 100 mm.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources are allocated in the regions depending on climate and aridity. The Tellian region is rich in water. Elsewhere, water resources are limited. The annual average volume of surface water available is estimated at 2700 million m3. This availability is highly dependent on rainfall.


Agriculture contributes to 16% of GDP. In recent decades it has become the main economic activity in rural settings, due to the recession of handcraft activities in these areas. Modernization / mechanization of Tunisian agriculture has greatly contributed to labour reduction and to the outsourcing of certain rural activities.

National agricultural production is distributed depending on the region as follows: 20% in the North West, 21% in Central East, 16% in Central West, 11% in the South. Wood farming is the first agricultural speculation because of the area it occupies (more than 2 million ha). Olive farming ranks first with 1.5 million ha and 57 million feet.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Due to its geographical position and climatic features, Tunisia would be highly exposed to the adverse effects of climate change. Vulnerability is particularly important faced with the accelerated increase in the sea level. This would affect natural ecosystems, economic activities (agriculture, energy and industry, tourism, fishing and aquaculture, etc.).

2/3 of the population, over 70% of the economic activities, 90% of the overall tourist capacity and a large part of irrigation farming are concentrated on the Tunisian coasts.

Regarding water resources, Tunisia is in a water-stress situation, exacerbated by a strong anthropogenic pressure. These resources, as well as the related ecosystems and economic activities (agriculture, tourism, etc.) are highly vulnerable to climate change.