56 600 km2


6 619 000 (2009)


Togo is under the influence of two large climate regimes. In the North we find a tropical Sudanese climate, with a rainy season (May-October) and a dry season (November- April). In this area the average annual rainfall varies from 900 to 1000 mm. In the South the Guinean tropical regime is characterized by two dry seasons and two rainy seasons of unequal durations, with an average annual rainfall from 1000 to 1600 mm. Between the two regions there is a transition area with a slight rainfall decrease in August or September. Average temperature reaches 28°C in northern areas, 27 ° C in the coastal area, between 24 and 26 °C in other localities.

Natural Resources:

Generally, plants formations are highly degraded. In 1994, the Togo National Forestry Action Plan estimated the rate of deforestation between 1970 and 1990 at 15,000 hectares/year.

With regard to fauna, this includes terrestrial fauna, avifauna and marine wildlife. It suffered a lot because of the country’s socio-economic unrest between 1990 and 1993. Fishery resources are generally limited and the country needs to relay on imports to cover the deficit.


The main crops are corn, cassava, yam and black-eyed pea. Livestock is the second main activity in the primary sector of the economy. It is usually of a traditional, extensive type.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Floods, drought, poor rainfall distributions, late rains and high winds are the country’s climate risks, in addition to drought that seems to concern the entire country with the exception of the coastal zone. The latter is rather affected by the sea level rise.

With a lot of material damages and loss of human life, flood takes precedence over all other risks. The livelihoods mostly exposed to these risks are farms, livestock, commercialisation of agricultural products and market garden.