Tanzania Factsheet


945,087 km2 with a land area of 883,749 km2

(881,289 km2 mainland and 2,460 km2 Zanzibar)km2



43 Million



Temperature in Tanzania varies according to the geographical location, relief and altitude. In the Coastal Regions and the off-shore Islands the average temperatures ranges between 27oC and 29oC, while in the Central, Northern and Western parts temperatures range between 20oC and 30oC and higher between the months of December and March. In the Northeast and Southwest where there are mountainous areas and Makonde Plateau, the temperature occasionally drops below 15oC at night during the months of June and July. Rainfall patterns in the country are subdivided into: tropical on the coast, where it is hot and humid (rainy season March-May): semi-temperate in the mountains with the short rains (Vuli) in November-December and the long rains (Masika) in February–May: and drier (Kiangazi) in the plateau region with considerable seasonal variations in temperature. The mean annual rainfall varies from 500 millimeters to 2,500 millimeters and above.

Natural Resources:

The Tanzanian economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than 28% of the GDP, providing 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force, while industry accounts for 24% of the GDP and services contributing 47%.


Approximately 80 percent of Tanzanians are employed by the agriculture sector plays, which accounts for half of the national income and three quarters of the merchandise exports in the country. The majority staples that are produced by Tanzania include maize, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, pulses (mainly beans), cassava, potatoes, bananas and plantains with the bulk of the country’s export crops being composed of coffee, cotton, cashew nut, tobacco, sisal, pyrethrum, tea, cloves, horticultural crops, oil seeds, spices and flowers. 

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Among the vulnerability in the agricultural sector include decreased crop production of different crops exacerbated by climatic variability and unpredictability of seasonality, erosion of natural resource base and environmental degradation. Floods on rivers would cause damage to major hydropower stations and human settlements found along these river basins in the country. Under the current trend in both rainfall and temperature, the frequency of occurrences and impacts of malaria is bound to rise. In addition, blackouts and power rationing as a result of low water levels in the hydropower dams is bound to increase.




Kiangazi: It means dry season in Swahili language, it also refers to hot and dry season.  

Masika: long-rains season, with planting in late February/March and harvesting in July/August. Tanzania has two major agro-climatic areas – the unimodal and the bimodal rainfall areas. The bimodal areas extend over the northern and north-eastern regions. Elsewhere in the country, i.e. the central and southern regions, rainfall is unimodal, with planting starting around November and harvesting taking place from May to July. In either of the climatic regions, the main rainfall season which at times leads to flooding is popularly known as masika.

Vuli: refers to a minor cropping or light rainfall season which begins around mid November with planting around October/November and harvesting in late January/February.