Sudan Factsheet


1 886 068 km²



30 Million



Sudan lies within the tropical zone. Mean annual temperatures vary between 26oC and 32oC across the country. The most extreme temperatures are found in the far northern part of the country; where summer temperatures can often exceed 43oC and the region typically experience virtually no rainfall. In the central area around and just south of Khartoum, average annual temperatures are around 27oC, with rainfall averaging about 200 mm per year and rarely exceeding 700 mm per year.

Natural Resources:

Sudan economy is predominantly agriculture based although the development of the oil-export industry has led to substantial shifts in the economic structure. Estimates indicate that the services sector is the leading contributing sector to Sudan’s GDP. Services contribute 41% to the GDP, agriculture 38.7%, and industry 20.3%.


Traditional subsistence agriculture dominates the Sudanese economy, with over 80% of the population dependent upon crop production and/or livestock husbandry to support their livelihoods. Agricultural activities account for nearly half of GDP, and are responsible for the vast majority of employment. The agricultural sector is dominated by small-scale farmers. Some of the crops cultivated during winter which is the most conducive season for crop production include; wheat, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and spices. Farmers also grow staples (sorghum and fodders).

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Sudan has experienced many devastating floods and droughts spells during the past several decades. These events have led to widespread loss of property, damage to irrigation facilities and water services and the spread of waterborne diseases. In Sudan recurring series of dry years has become a normal occurrence in the Sudan-Sahel region. Drought is threatening the existing cultivation of about 12 million hectares of rain fed, mechanized farming and 6.6 million hectares of traditional rain fed lands. Pastoral and nomadic groups in the semi-arid areas of Sudan are also affected. A succession of dry years has resulted in severe social and economic impacts, including many human and livestock fatalities and the resettlement of close to three million people close to the Nile and in urban areas.