Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods in Smallholder Systems (SAMPLES)

SAMPLES is a global research program that investigates the impact of smallholder agriculture on the climate. Currently, virtually no data are available on greenhouse gas emissions and removals from smallholder production systems. The dearth of information constrains the transition to low emissions agricultural development. SAMPLES aims to generate robust and comparable data on greenhouse gas emissions and livelihood indicators for smallholder farming systems. SAMPLES is a program of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.

SAMPLES is a global research program that investigates the impact of smallholder agriculture on the climate. Currently, virtually no data are available on greenhouse gas emissions and removals from smallholder production systems. The dearth of information constrains the transition to low emissions agricultural development. SAMPLES aims to generate robust and comparable data on greenhouse gas emissions and livelihood indicators for smallholder farming systems.

SAMPLES is a program of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Activities within the SAMPLES program are carried out by a network of researchers atseveral CGIAR centers.



SAMPLES research prioritizes farming systems where (1) there is high mitigation potential, (2) there is high potential for policy impact, and (3) where CGIAR researchers are already active in the region. 

At SAMPLES sites, researchers measure greenhouse gas emissions associated with agricultural practices, and the potential emissions reductions associated with alternative practices. SAMPLES research also quantifies changes in productivity and livelihood indicators associated with alternative practices. This internalizes the trade-offs between production and environmental objectives and helps identify economically and socially acceptable management options, not just potential technologies. 

There are four components to the SAMPLES research program. Click below to learn more:





































Source of funding


Funding description

SAMPLES is carried out with funding from:

·         CCAFS Donors

·         CGIAR Fund Donors

·         The Government of Canada through the federal Department of the Environment

·         German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

·         U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

·         Finland

·         German Academic Exchange Service

·         Bayer CropScience

·         Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

·         UNEP Climate and Clean Air Coalition




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Carbon sinks (other than forests)
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Cross cutting

Capacity Building
Community Managed Initiatives
Impact assessment


GHG measurement; soil carbon; field measurement; smallholder agriculture; mitigation; capacity building



Geographic Coverage



Dr. Mariana Rufino (ILRI, Kenya), Dr. Todd Rosenstock (ICRAF, Kenya)