637 657 km2



10.1 Million (2012)



Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 to 40°C, except at higher elevations along the eastern seaboard, where the effects of a cold offshore current can be felt. There are four main seasons around which dictates pastoral and agricultural life cycle, during December to March is the Jilal. The main rainy season, referred to as the Gu, lasts from April to June. From July to September is the second dry season, the Xagaa (pronounced "Hagaa"). The Dayr, which is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December. Somalia range from arid in the northeastern and central regions to semiarid in the northwest and south. In the northeast, annual rainfall is less than 100 mm; in the central plateaus, it is about 200 to 300 mm. The northwestern and southwestern parts of the nation, however, receive considerably more rain, with an average of 500 to 600 mm falling per year.

Natural Resources:

Agriculture is the most important economic sector. It accounts for about 65% of the GDP and employs 65% of the workforce. The modest industrial sector based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of Somalia's GDP. Livestock contributes about 40% to GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Other principal exports include fish, charcoal and bananas; sugar, sorghum and corn. Somalia is also a major world supplier of frankincense and myrrh.


Only 1.6% of Somalia's total land area is cultivated, and 69% is permanent pasture. The Somalis have traditionally engaged in rain-fed dry-land farming or in dry-land farming complemented by irrigation from the waters of the Shabeelle and Jubba rivers or from collected rainwater. Corn, sorghum, beans, rice, vegetables, cotton, and sesame are grown by both methods.  The commercial crops, bananas and sugarcane, are grown on irrigated land along the two rivers. Bananas constitute the nation's major commercial crop.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Somalia has experienced many droughts spells during the past several years. These events have led to widespread loss of property especially livestock. In Somalia recurring series of dry years has become a normal occurrence. Drought is threatening Somali population, famine in the Bakool and Lower Shabelle regions of southern Somalia thrust the country into a humanitarian crisis that has been deteriorating for years.



Jilal: This refers to the harshest dry season of the year which occurs between December to March

Gu: The main rainy season and lasts from April to June. This period is characterized by the southwest monsoons, which rejuvenate the pasture land, especially the central plateau, and briefly transform the desert into lush vegetation.

Xagaa: Pronounced "Hagaa", occurs during the months of July to September and is the second dry season

Dayr: Is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December