196 712 km2


12 855 153 (2011)


The climate is Sudano-Sahelian, characterized by the alternation of a dry season (November to May) and a rainy season (June to October). The average annual rainfall follows an increasing gradient from the north to the south of the country. It goes from 300 mm in the semi-arid North to 1200 mm in the South, with remarkable variations from one year to another.

Natural Resources:

For their domestic energy consumption, Senegalese households use mainly wood and charcoal (56% of the energy) to the detriment of timber resources, which are becoming smaller under climatic hazards and the demographic pressure. FAO has estimated a deforestation rate of 45,000 ha per year. The Senegalese population is predominantly rural (more than 60% of the workforce are farmers) and is heavily dependent on natural resources. The pressure on these resources, correlated with climatic deteriorations, leads to their rarefaction and/or degradation, exacerbating the process of impoverishment and making populations more vulnerable, especially in rural areas.


Agriculture is dominated by growing of groundnuts and millet in the Groundnut Basin, followed by extensive agro-pastoral activities in the silvopastoral areas. There are then food-crop growing areas and forests of the south-east, flood-recession crops along the Senegal river valley and the cotton growing area running along the eastern half of the border with Gambia. Traditional rice growing is practiced on the slopes of the Casamance river basin and there are irrigation perimeters in the delta and middle valley of the Senegal river and in the Anambe basin to the south. Irrigated horticulture is practiced mainly in the Niayes areas.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

The absence or the rarefaction of the vegetative cover makes the soil vulnerable to the erosive effects of wind and water. Vulnerability is also found in the low capacity for regeneration of the forest resources under the combined effect of worsening climatic conditions and anthropogenic pressure. Forage resources are experiencing quantitative and qualitative degradation due to a lack of water supply which will limit the productivity of pastures. Ponds and water points will see their storage capacity reduced by excessive evaporation. Livestock will also be affected by climate change due to an increased scarcity of forage and water resources. Meat and milk production will also be negatively affected.