São Tomé and Príncipe


1001 km2



180 000



The islands present a humid tropical climate, with abundant rains almost the whole year, with the exception of the months of June to August, corresponding to the period of the gravana, where a decrease of the precipitation and temperature are verified, with winds blowing from the south-southwest quadrant. Just as rainfall, the temperatures are equally influenced by the relief, even though it has been recognized that important variations in the increase from the highest areas to the lowest ones. The driest and coolest months are from June to September, when temperatures are around 29°C. The wettest month is March, when the rain beats down monotonously and temperatures rise to around 30°C. The Average precipitation in depth (mm per year) in Sao Tome and Principe is 3200.

Natural Resources:

Agriculture and small service industries are the major sectors of the economy. Fisheries are potentially important. Fishing remains an important activity in coastal communities. Agriculture contributes up to 21% of the GDP followed by industry at 26% while services sector is the largest contributor to the national GDP at 53%.


The economy remains dependent on plantation agriculture, especially cocoa (grown for its seeds, cocoa beans). About two-fifths of the total land area is under cultivation, with cocoa trees covering a little less than two-thirds of the cultivated land; coconut palms cover most of the remainder. These two are the dominant crop on São Tomé representing about 95 percent of exports. Other export crops include copra, palm kernels, and coffee. Smallholders grow root crops, vegetables, plantains, and bananas for local consumption.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

It has been observed that pluvial-fluvial floods, coastal floods and landfalls have increased in the recent past and have adverse effects on various sectors. Significant increase of waterborne diseases, through the contamination of water supply provoked by the floods; respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis; landfalls besides the economic damage with indirect health effects also provoke poly-traumatism that cannot be treated inside the country. Also flooding and sea level rise leads to loss of materials and fishing equipment; loss of human lives by disappearance at sea; partial or complete destruction of the embarkations in the harbors or on the beaches; and destruction of houses where the families of the fishermen live.





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