Republic of the Congo


342 000 km2


4 366 266


The Congolese climate is equatorial with a bimodal structure that presents a dry season whose duration decreases from south to north (3 to 4 months up to 2ºS and 1 to 2 months for the rest of the country). The average rainfall varies from 1300 mm in the valleys to over 1800 mm in the mountains and plateaus. In parallel, the Congolese basin receives about 1500 mm, of which 50% comes from the evaporation and evapotranspiration generated by the large forest mass.

Natural Resources:

With renewable water resources estimated at 832 billion m3, Congo is placed in the category of countries with abundant water resources. These resources consist of surface water and groundwater. However, these resources are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, in particular the groundwater in the coastal basin, which contributes to the supply of drinking water.

The country hosts two major vegetal formations which are the forest and the savannah. The flora is estimated at 4397 species, distributed in 198 families and 1338 genres. The National Herbarium created in Brazzaville counts nearly 4500 species.


The contribution of agriculture to the country’s GDP has declined significantly in recent years: from 27.1% in 1960 to 4.4% in 2000. Agricultural production is far from meeting the domestic needs. 90% of the cereal needs and 50% of the needs of fish are covered by importations. The country has an agricultural production capacity of 10 million hectares but only 200,000 hectares are developed (2%). In addition, changes in rainfall and temperature observed in recent years have affected the rural world, in particular the main agricultural production areas (Niari Valley, Batéké Plateau). The increasing climatic constraints along with a high evapotranspiration (0.3 mm more per day) accentuate the water deficit of some annual crops (Arachis). Other problems have been identified, namely the alteration of the cropping calendar, threats to perennial crops and the reduction of arable land (Cataractes) due to bushfires.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Despite its equatorial nature and its low temperature range, the country is not spared from the effects of global climate change. Climate vulnerability affects the country's ecosystems (forestry, marine, etc.), the different resources (water, fish, flora and fauna) as well as the socio-economic sectors (agriculture, health, human settlements, etc.).



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