1 241 238 km2


14 517 176 (2009)


The climate of Mali is tropical dry. It is of four types: a Saharan climate (desert) in the north with an annual rainfall of less than 200 mm, a Sahelian climate in the center with between 200 mm and 600 mm annual rainfall, a Sudanese climate (annual rainfall of 600 mm and 1000 mm) and Sudano-Guinean climate in the south with over 1000 mm rainfall. In general, temperatures are high and average rainfall is low. It is noted that the average maximum temperature in the shelter varies between 34 and 37 °C and the minimum between 21 and 23 °C. The maximum relative humidity varies between 31 and 75% and the minimum between 11 and 38%. The annual potential evapotranspiration has an average ranging between 1,534 and 2,003 mm against an average of less than 100 to more than 1,000 mm of rainfall. The average sunshine ranges from 284.7 to 322.0 hours.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources are affected by variability and climate change, in particular in the sectors of water, biodiversity and soil. Because of their great importance in the various socio-economic and cultural fields, forest and wildlife resources are subject to unplanned and abuse leading to accelerated environmental degradation.


Although the land suitable for agriculture represents only 14% of the total area, agriculture is the main activity, both in terms of employment and in terms of contribution to the economy of Mali.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Research results shows that in Mali small farmers and artisans are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, while traders and large farmers are less vulnerable.