1.8 M km2


5.6 M (2012 estimate)


Both the Mediterranean Sea and the desert affect Libya's climate. In winter, the weather is cool with some rain on the coast and in the drier; the desert temperature can drop to sub-freezing at night. The Sahara is basically very dry and hot in summer and cool and dry in the winter. Temperatures in the summer can reach 50°C during the day but more commonly are around 40°C. Night temperatures can vary from 30 to 40°C. It is unlikely to encounter rainfall, but if it does occur, then it is most likely in January or February and rarely lasts long. Often after the rains the desert comes to life with flowers. This generally happens in late February or March. Mean annual precipitation varies from 0 mm in the south of Libya to 600 mm on the coast.

Natural Resources:

Libya’s most important natural resources are its oil and natural gas reserves, which dominate its economy. The revenues from the oil sector, contributes 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages, other significant resources are natural gas, gypsum, limestone, marine salt, potash, and sodium carbonate. Agriculture contributes less than 5% of the GDP.


Animal husbandry is a significant activity but relies heavily on imported animal feed. Fishing resources are not fully exploited. Due to sporadic rainfall pattern, agriculture production in Libya is highly reliant on irrigation but the production of wheat, barley, dates, pulses, vegetables and olives are under rain-fed conditions.


Vulnerability:  Precipitation variability, high temperatures and increasing drought will lead to significant declines in agricultural productivity in Libya and the loss of food security and may also increase the vulnerability of livestock due to shortage of water resources, increased salinity in northern parts, and loss of grazing sites.



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