36 125 km2



 1.8 Million



There are two climatic regions: the sub-Guinean humid tropical region and the Sudanese tropical one. The former coincides with the coastal zone and is characterized by intense rains (1,500-2,500 mm per year), average temperature variations and heavy air humidity throughout the year. The latter (Sudanese type), covering the country’s eastern half, is characterized by weak rainfall (1,000-1,500 mm per year), high temperature variations, heavy air humidity throughout the rainy season and light humidity over the dry season. Average yearly temperature nationwide in Guinea-Bissau is 27° C with low temperature variations (3-4 ºC). High temperatures are recorded in March-May (hot season), when maximum temperatures reach 32-39 ºC and coolest temperatures stand at 20-24 ºC. In the coolest time period of the year (December-February) top temperatures reach 25-30 ºC and minimum ones vary between 16º and 20 ºC.

Natural Resources:

The economy is largely dependent on agriculture, The agricultural sector, dominated by cashew, is the most important sector of the country’s economy, contributing with 62.6% for the GDP compared to 12.2% for industry and 25.2% for the services sector. A large part of population is concentrated on the coastal zone (80%) and depends vitally on the direct exploration of natural resources for its survival.


Around 80 percent of the population is involved in agriculture, mainly producing rice, the primary staple, and cashew nuts. Guinea-Bissau is one of the world’s largest exporters of unprocessed cashew nuts and most farmers depend on the crop for cash income. The country is divided into three major regions according to the water requirements of the major crops. On the coast and in river estuaries is the palm-tree (coconut) zone; rice is the predominant crop of the intermediary marshy areas; and peanuts are grown in the sandy areas of the interior. Rice is the major staple crop; corn, millet, and sorghum are also produced and consumed widely.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Coastal area floods caused by high tides or torrential rains are rather the norm causing food shortage and damage to infrastructure. High temperatures in abnormal periods of the year, associated to dust winds from the Sahel that hit the country every year, have damaged the blossoming and ripping of many fruit species. Locust plagues, helped by rises in temperature, have been frequent in the recent past, causing enormous damage to fruit and vegetable-growing activities and the consequent abortive effect on plants and fall in production levels. Forests are receding and savannahs are advancing, accidental bush fires are much more frequent, rivers and lakes become narrower and have weaker streams, natural habitats are destroyed.



Sahel: is a belt of semi-arid tropical savannah that composes the northern region of central and western Sub-Saharan Africa. It is an eco-climatic and bio-geographic zone of transition between the Sahara desert in the north and the Sudanian savannas in the south. It stretches across the north of the African continent between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. The Arabic word il literally means "shore, coast", describing the appearance of the vegetation of the Sahel as a coastline delimiting the sand of the Sahara.

Savannahs: is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannas are also characterized by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season. Savannas are associated with several types of biomass. Savannas are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or prairie.