267 667 km2



1.6M (2010)



The country has an equatorial climate, warm and humid, with two seasons: a wet season that lasts 9 months and a dry season that lasts 3 months. Precipitations are abundant and the average pluviometry goes from 1800 to 3200 mm/year in coastal regions and from 1400 to 2000 mm/year in the interior of the country.

Temperatures are high and vary between 21°C and 28°C.

Natural Resources:

The forest, the savanna and the mangroves constitute the main vegetation of Gabon. Forests make up almost 85% of the territory with an overall surface of 23 million hectares. The savanna represents almost 15% of the total surface of the country. Gabon also counts with significant potential in the form of its mangroves, which provide resources in vegetal and animal biomass.

The biological diversity of the country is one of the richest in the world with the proliferation of many vegetal, animal and microbial species. The Gabonese forest represents a place of biodiversity preservation with thirteen national parks and protected areas. In addition, the Gabonese flora contains over 7000 species of which 10.8% are endemic. The wildlife of Gabon is very diverse, the existence of nearly 200 mammals and nearly 680 bird species has been identified.

Regarding the water resources, in addition to the coastal area, Gabon has a dense network which supplies the rivers Ogooué and Nyanga as well as the upper basins of small coastal rivers in the north. With regard to mineral resources, the country has three product categories: energy products (oil, gas, uranium), metal products (manganese, untapped iron ore) and refractory or quarry products (limestone products, marble).

Oil resources remain the main driver of the national economy and represent 52% of the GDP.


Gabon has no agricultural vocation despite the availability of fertile land located generally in the valleys. Cultivated areas are small and cover only 5% of the arable land. However, two types of agriculture are practiced: subsistence farming and commercial agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is mainly based on the cultivation of banana and cassava.  Commercial agriculture has a reduced extension and is dominated by cocoa, coffee, oil palm and sugar cane.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Gabon has nearly 950 km of coastline and an estimated 265,000 km2 of marine areas. The coastal area gathers almost 60% of the population and a significant proportion of economic activity in the country.
The demographic pressure of the main coastal cities (Libreville, Port-Gentil, Gamba and Mayumba) combined with the unsustainable use of resources and the impacts of climate change (erosion, rising temperatures and rising sea level, etc.) make the Gabonese coast extremely vulnerable. Mandji Island, a marine area extending over 50 km on which the oil city of Port Gentil is situated, is the lung of the Gabonese economy; however, the island and the region present disturbing features due to their low altitude and the risks in terms of flooding, intrusion of saline water and coastal erosion.

Currently flood-risk areas cover 282 km2 (64% of the total area of the island). The flooding phenomenon is a risk factor to people and infrastructure. Due to sand extractions in the region, inadequate and poorly maintained drainage system of rainwater and land subsidence during rains more than 90% of this area risks to be flooded by 2100.

Serious consequences are to be expected, including contamination of water sources that will favor the risk of waterborne diseases, the increase of cardiovascular diseases, and the appearance and re-appearance of other illnesses.



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