23 000 km2




The country has an arid tropical climate (with high temperatures and evaporation throughout the year), semi-desert with the exception of mountainous areas in the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura, characterized by temperatures ranging from 23° C in January and 39° C in August. Rainfall is low and erratic, and barely reaches an annual average of 130 mm. This climate is characterised by the frequency of clouds, mist and haze.

Natural Resources:

The main environmental concern of Djibouti is the availability of drinking water. The water supply comes primarily from groundwater; the rate of filling depends on rainfall and infiltration conditions. The cutting of trees is the most devastating human activity. It has led to the destruction of forests and other vegetation. Fishery resources are abundant, while coral reefs and mangroves are in a state of advanced deterioration.


Potential arable land is estimated at tens of thousands of hectares. The country has about 1,530 smallholders. Agricultural production remains low due to several factors: poor soils, salinity, lack of agricultural tradition and poor coaching and research. Nomadic ranching remains the predominant activity in rural areas (0.5 TLU / capita).

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Three sectors (water, agriculture and forestry, livestock) and two ecosystems (coastal and marine) are mostly affected by climate change. In short, the Djiboutian communities are under threat of 12 types of vulnerabilities including the loss of coastal land areas, floods, lack of drinking water, flood-related diseases.



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