The Union of the Comoros is an archipelago composed of four islands which are, from East to West: Mayotte (370 km2), Anjouan (424 km2), Moheli (290 km2) and Grand-Comoro (1148 km2).


About 800000  



The humid and hot season (rainy season), from mid-November to Mid-April, is characterised by a humid heat, rather frequent storms and, particularly from January-February, by some strongly disturbed episodes due to the tropical depressions near the archipelago. In the coastal zone, the average temperature is of the order of 27° C. The maximum vary between 31 and 35°C and the minima around 23°C. During the rainy seasons, the Comoros can be the centre of tropical cyclones. The fresh and dry season occurs from the beginning of June to the end of September. In low altitude, the average temperatures vary from 23 to 24 ° C. The maximum turn around 28° C and the minima between18 and 19° C. In all the islands, the annual precipitation comprises between 1000 mm and 5000 mm, according to the regions. Generally, the regions located at the west of the islands are the ones with highest rainfalls due to they exposition to the monsoons. In the islands of Moheli and Anjouan, maximal precipitation rise between 2500 and 4000 mm. Whereas in Grand-Comoro, they go beyond 4000mm per year at the level of the Karthala forest located on the west slope of the island.

Natural Resources:

The primary sector contributes to nearly an average of 44 of the GDP, occupies 70 to 80% of the active population and provides the quasi totality (98%) of the export revenues of a limited range of the cash crops. The agricultural sector encompasses 70% of women jobs and 51% of men’s jobs and covers only 40% of the food needs of the country. The secondary sector is largely traditional and represents nearly 13% of the GDP. The tertiary sector is dominated by commerce, service, and administration, with an annual contribution of 43% in average per year.


The major food crops are cassava, coconut, bananas, rice, sweet potatoes, pulses, and corn. Vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, and copra have been the major export crops. The Comoros were, at one time, the world's leading producer of the essence of ylang-ylang, oil widely used in the perfume industry. The Islands were also the world's second-largest producer of vanilla.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

The Comoros is regularly swept by violent winds and sometimes by tropical cyclones with significant human and material damage, the destruction of housings and significant economic losses in agriculture. The country further lives under the stress of landslides, fall of embankments and flooding, which cause the disappearance of lands, infrastructures (roads, hospitals, schools) and human housings.



Anjouan: also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani, and historically as Johanna. Anjouan is an autonomous island, part of the Union of Comoros. The island is located in the Indian Ocean with its capital at Mutsamudu. The total area of the island is 424 Km2 or 163 mi2).

Copra: is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. Coconut oil usually is extracted from it and has made copra an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake which is mainly used as feed for livestock.  Copra can be made by smoke drying, sun drying, or kiln drying.

Karthala: An active volcano and the highest point of the Comoros at 2,361 m (7,746 ft) above sea level. It is the southernmost and larger of the two shield volcanoes forming Grande Comore island. The Karthala volcano is notoriously active, having erupted more than 20 times since the 19th century. Frequent eruptions have shaped the volcano’s 3 by 4 km summit caldera. 

Mayotte: French corruption of the Arabic word Mawuti meaning Island of the dead/ of death. The archipelago is located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, namely between northwestern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. Mayotte's area is 370 square kilometres (144 sq mi). The territory of Mayotte is geographically part of the Comoro Islands.

Mohéli: Also known as Mwali, is one of the three islands which make up the nation of Comoros. Mohéli is located in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. It is by far the smallest of the Comoros islands.

Ylang-ylang: A fast-growing tree of the custard-apple family, Annonaceae that attains an average height of 12 m (40 ft). It grows in full or partial sun, and prefers the acidic soils of its native rainforest habitat. It is also called Cananga odorata and is a tree valued for its perfume. The essential oil derived from the flowers is used in aromatherapy

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