Chad Factsheet


1,284,000 km2


11 000 000 (2011)


Chadian territory is subject to a system of two winds: the Harmattan (north-east) and the monsoon (south-west). Rainfall is marked by a strong irregularity in its spatial and temporal distribution. The thermal regime is characterized by a relatively cool period from December to February (11° C-22° C) and a warm period from March to June (39-45° C). The distribution of rainfall and vegetation cover allows distinguishing three areas: Saharan, Sahelian and Sudanese zone.

Natural Resources:

Chad has 39 million hectares of cultivable land (30% of the territory), including 19 million hectares of arable land and 13.3 million hectares cleared for agriculture. Chad is home to 84 million hectares of natural pastures and 23.3 million of natural forests. The renewable water resources are estimated at 45 km3. Regarding wildlife, there is a remarkable diversity: 131 species of mammals (according to IUCN), 532 bird species, of which 354 stationary, 117 Palearctic migrant and 260 Afrotropical migrants. The fauna of reptiles and amphibians is only partially documented. In addition to these natural resources, the country has oil.


Agriculture is an important sector of the national economy. It is able to generate substantial financial resources for the country and strengthen food security of the population. The agriculture practiced in rural areas, where 75% of the total population lives, is dominated by cotton and food crops. Livestock is another sector whose contribution to the economy is important. It is the second largest export product and the second largest source of revenue after cotton. It employs 40% of the workforce.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

In Chad, climatic disturbances have been registered in different regions. Negative impacts have mostly hit the biophysical environment (reduced forest areas, wind erosion, ecosystem change …) and the key sectors of development.



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