475 442 km2


20 129 878


The Cameroonian climate is characterized by a great diversity, due to the influence of the sea, the country’s topography, and the extension of its territory in latitude. Three main climatic zones characterize the Cameroon: the humid equatorial zone, the Sudanese zone and the Sudano-Sahelian zone.

Natural Resources:

Cameroon is part of the Congo Basin, whose ecosystem constitutes the second largest tropical forest after the Amazon Basin. Cameroon's forests contain nearly 40% of African faunas. 25 years ago these forests covered more than 22.5 million hectares (47.4% of the country). Nearly 7,000 types of plants have been identified. Forests currently cover an area of 388.253 km2, of which 153,700 hectares are converted each year for various needs.

The inventories of 14 million hectares of rain forests revealed a potential of about 1.5 billion m3 for timber production.

The share of wood exports reached 20% of the value of total exports (1993/1994). Cameroon has diversified energy resources; mainly wood fuel. Cameroon has the second hydroelectric potential in Africa, estimated at 115 TW.


In Cameroon, we can distinguish three major agro-ecological regions: the humid forest region, the Northern and Western Region.

Cameroon's agriculture is divided into two sub-sectors: traditional agriculture with an average area of around 0.5 ha for food crops and modern agriculture practiced by large agribusiness.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Coastal and Sahelian zones are considered vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Major negative impacts are expected in the agriculture and livestock sectors in the Sudano-Sahelian region, and on mangroves and on the industrial infrastructure in the coastal areas.

The rise in sea level is causing not only flooding, but also coastal erosion, reduction of living space, increase of salt water in the rivers Dibamba and Wouri.

Floods often cause displacement of people and destruction of homes. The increase in salinity could affect the mangrove flora, while the modification of river flows disrupts the growth of several species of fish.

In terms of health, changes in precipitation and temperatures are expected to have a direct impact on the development of malaria, meningitis and cholera.