27,834 km²



8.7 Million



The climate of Burundi varies with altitude. The altitudes above 2000m have mean precipitation ranging between 1400 mm and 1600 mm, and annual mean temperature oscillating around 15°C with the minima sometimes going as down as 0°C. The central plateaus, whose altitude oscillates between 1500 and 2000m, receive approximately 1200 mm of annual precipitation with 18 to 20°C of average temperature. The zones of altitudes below 1400m in the Imbo floodplain and the depressions of Kumoso and Bugesera have annual mean precipitation below 1200 mm and average annual temperature above 20°C.

Natural Resources:

The primary economic sector contributes 46% of GDP, of which agriculture accounts for 45% with coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca), beef, milk, hides being major activities. Secondary sector contributes 19% of GDP through beverage production, coffee and tea processing, cigarette production, sugar refining, pharmaceuticals, light food processing, chemicals (insecticides), public works construction, consumer goods, assembly of imported components, light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap and the services sector 35% of GDP.


Burundi's largest industry is agriculture. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of the value of agricultural production. The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports. Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Common climate risks and related impacts in Burundi include: Rainfall deficits or droughts which have caused famine, deficit of water for various use, decreased livestock and agricultural production, loss of human lives and biodiversity; Rainfall excesses, floods and hail causing losses of harvests, losses in human lives, losses of habitats for species, destruction of infrastructures, landslide, wood windfall, eruptions of parasitic diseases, waterborne diseases and nutritional deficiency diseases, the blocking or silting of rivers and lakes; Excessive temperatures leading to thermal stress, recrudescence of respiratory diseases and vector borne diseases and acceleration of bush fires.




Kumoso and Bugesera: Comprises areas south of Rwanda which is prone to droughts. The area has a higher average daytime temperature than the Burundi and Rwandan average, and lower precipitation, which sometimes lead to droughts.

Imbo: floodplain- Plain of Imbo, where lays a large fraction of the city of Bujumbura.  Usually the plain gets flooded with rain water due to its low lying nature.

Manioc (tapioca): Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava (Manihot esculenta) also referred to as manioc. Tapioca is gluten-free, almost completely protein-free, and contains practically no vitamins.