2,381,741 km²


25,000,000 inhabitants (1990)


The arid and semi-arid nature of the country is due to its climate. The anticyclonic ridge across Morocco and Spain in the autumn and spring does not favor the occurrence of precipitations. Rains are quite common only in November and December. The Tell Atlas is rainier than the coast and the highlands. In summer rains are rare and are more common on the coast than in the rest of the country. In autumn rainfall on the Tell Atlas and the Highlands is very similar. The annual rainfall is 817.3 mm Miliana, 686 mm in Algiers, Djelfa 347.4 mm and 15.8 mm in Ain Salah.

Natural Resources:

Hydrocarbons are the main wealth of the country. Oil production is about 48 million tons per year.

The country’s potential surface water is estimated at 12,410 billions m³/year. However, the volume mobilized is only 4.5 billion m³ per year. More than 2/3 of the mobilized surface water comes from only 3% of the national territory. Therefore, the country suffers from a chronic shortage of water. Water resources are insufficient to cover the needs of the population, agriculture and industry.

Algeria enjoys a wealth of domestic animals well adapted to the climate variability of the country.

The forest area is estimated at 2,300,000,000 hectares.


Algerian agriculture contributes 14% of the country’s GDP. The coverage of nutrition needs through local production is estimated at 20% for cereals, 30% for milk and dairy products and 0% for sugar and edible oils. The agricultural sector is facing the problem of land and water degradation. In addition to this, arable land accounts for less than 3% of the national territory and is situated in coastal areas exposed to climate risks.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Algeria is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Faunas may be affected by a decline in vegetal activity. The intensification of aridity may degrade sensitive areas like the steppe, the highlands, the Tell Atlas or the coastline. The encroachment of the desert (north of the Tell Atlas) is another aspect of vulnerability in the country. The forestry sector is also threatened due to evapotranspiration and water stress. In the field of health, climate change favors the spread of vector-borne diseases such as malaria.



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