The CSIR is one the largest Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) organizations in Africa. Both national and global challenges provide the framework within which the CSIR conducts its multidisciplinary research. Research falls into four broad focus areas: emerging research; specialist research facilities; R&D outcomes, e.g. IP and technology transfer; and specialised consulting. The CSIR has research contracts in the private and public sectors, fosters collaborations regionally and internationally, and liaises closely with tertiary education institutions.