Sierra Leona


71 740 km2



5.6 Million



Sierra Leone has a tropical climate with two distinct seasons. The Dry Season (December to April) is dominated by winds from the northeast (i.e. the North-east trades), and the rainy season (May to November). The temperature is characterized by high temperatures with an average monthly temperature of between 26–28oC from June to October with a maximum temperature of 32oC.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources drive the national economy. Past studies have revealed that agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy, representing 52 % of the GDP and sustaining two-thirds of the population. The mining sector which is largely export oriented is the next largest productive resource in the economy and provides about 20 percent of the GDP. The manufacturing sector is small with mostly import– substituting industries that employ about 2 percent of the labour force. The service sector accounts on average for about 23 percent of the GDP.


Agriculture is the primary occupation in Sierra Leone. Agricultural exports consist of coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, piassava, kola nuts, and ginger. Rice, grown by 80% of farmers, is the most important subsistence crop and, along with millet in the northeast. Other domestic food crops include cassava, yams, peanuts, corn, pineapples, coconuts, tomatoes, and pepper. Coffee and cocoa are also grown on smallholding.

Climate Vulnerabilities:

Sierra Leone is experiencing a variety of climatic hazards which include seasonal drought, strong winds, thunderstorms, landslides, heat waves, floods, intense seasonal rainfall and shifting rainfall patterns. Poor communities have suffered from floods and seasonal drought which have destroyed their crops and hampered their food production capabilities. Flooding in Sierra Leone appears to be on the increase. Floods resulting from heavy rainfall have been an annual between the months of May and October. Blocked drains have enhanced the overflow of flood waters into roads and into homes of residents. Sea-level rise, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion, and flooding will have significant impacts for Sierra Leone coastline infrastructure, socio-economic activities and communities.




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