Demand-driven climate information for agricultural planning and decision-making

02-09-2014
01-07-2011 - 01-06-2014
Here we discuss one of the most successful projects implemented at ICPAC, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation which aims at contributing to climate risk reduction in agriculture and food security. This was achieved by strengthening the capacity of ICPAC to provide community demand-driven climate information for application in agricultural planning and decision-making, at community level. The project integrated local community knowledge with knowledge from the climate community and agricultural experts to come up with the specific community based climate risk reduction advisories.
Knowledge buildingCommunity participation and inclusivenessFinancial sustainabilityBuilding local capacityTransferableMonitoring and evaluation
ICPAC

The process started by scaling down of the products from WMO Global Climate Producing Centres (GPCs) by ICPAC, and its Member States’ NMHSs at RCOF, to derive regional climate outlooks. These were further downscaled by the Kenyan Meteorological Service (KMS) to obtain national and local (sub-national) seasonal climate outlook products. The downscaled local seasonal climate outlooks were then tabled for discussion at location forums to derive location-specific agro-climate analysis, with  input  not  only  from  the  local  communities, but  also experts from  local  universities,  local government advisers from various sectors; local NGOs/ CBOs, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and farmer group representatives. The project’s key lessons and experiences from the four vulnerable communities in Kenya are briefly highlighted here. The four pilot study locations included Oloitokitok, Reru, Nganyi and Nyahera.

1. Knowledge building
At the farming community level within GHA, there has not been any deliberate (formal) weather/climate information dissemination services for purposes of agricultural planning and decision making. Most communities have been relying on their own (indigenous knowledge) weather prediction while others claim to be “making rain”. However, due to climate change, the seasons were no longer predictable; crop production was no longer predictable; pastures and water availability were no longer predictable; food security was no longer predictable and so neither were community livelihoods. The IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (hosted by ICPAC) worked closely with the Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) to develop relevant weather information packages and deliver them in a timely manner to the farmers and pastoralists in the participating communities. Some of the information was meant to inform farmer’s commencement of agricultural operations at the beginning of a season while other information was provided as the season proceeded to help in decision-making as to the timing of various agricultural operations such as planting, weeding, top-dressing, use of strategic pasture reserves and movement of livestock to other grazing and watering areas.
2. Community participation and inclusiveness
The Nganyi community are peasants that depend upon traditional weather forecasting capacity, using local indicators that include trees, animals, insects, reptiles, as well as local climate observatories. The project coordinators agreed that consensus forecast from the ten indigenous 'shrines' would be obtained and passed to the project forecast evaluation team that was located at a local university, before the ICPAC RCOF regional outlooks and KMS national forecasts were released. Several local youths were trained by KMS and ICPAC on weather observations from the new installed weather stations in the area and disaster risk reduction. The Oloitokitok communities are predominantly nomadic pastoralists, living in the arid and semiarid part of Kenya prone to frequent droughts. The community has a group ranching tenure system and dissemination of climate information is coordinated by an institutional framework of local elders with support from the government. The Reru area is located very close to Lake Victoria yet characterized by semi-arid conditions with large seasonal and inter annual variability in rainfall. The area has a large group of subsistence farmers, some of whom keep livestock. The group chosen for the pilot study in Reru comprised of dedicated members of a catholic church chosen by the head priest. The dissemination of local climate information was coordinated at Reru Catholic Church by the head priest.
3. Political ownership, collaboration and approval
Not applicable
4. Financial sustainability
Climate-related disasters have already caused significant economic losses in most production sectors; for example, the 2008-2011 drought in Kenya caused a loss of approximately Ksh 968.6 billion (USD 12.1 billion) in which livestock sector alone suffered close to Ksh 700 billion. The GHA region has been relying on relief food for a long time; this is not sustainable in the long run. Through support from the Rockefeller Foundation (Grant: 2011 CRD301), ICPAC, in collaboration with Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD), implemented a 3-year project aimed at strengthening the capacity of vulnerable communities in climate risk reduction for improved agricultural production and food security. This was achieved through the development and dissemination of tailor-made, demand-driven agro-meteorological products and services.
5. Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Not applicable
6. Building local capacity
The Oloitokitok community is practicing some open irrigation farming activities along the local river, whenever adequate river water is available. The seasonal climate information and advice provided by the project is used by the pastoralists to rationally exploit the good seasons and use the scarce pasture and water resources appropriately. This has enabled livestock in this community to maintain high condition scores even during and after prolonged dry spells. The advisories have also helped in delaying pastoral migrations since management of pastures and water resources have greatly improved. In Reru community the farmers have benefited through a new partnership with East African Breweries who have engaged them to produce beer-type sorghum. KMS constructed a local climate information center for Nganyi community that was equipped with communication systems to support dissemination of community based climate information that integrates with KMS local forecasts and local information by Nganyi community. The training of Nganyi community on KMS-based observations and forecasting tools at community forums have contributed to improved use of climate information by the community. Farmers in this community are now widely using climate information in planning and managing their agricultural operations.
7. Transferable
The project's main innovation of disseminating weather information through SMS messages was highly welcomed by both farmers and other stakeholders; it was highly rated by farmers and project staff, as compared to other methods of weather information dissemination. For example, it is a cheaper means of communication (an SMS costs only KSh 1 or $0.0125) and thus very affordable; it is a quick form of communication thus ensures timely delivery of useful information; an SMS is short, thus the message is very precise; also an SMS could be stored on the mobile phone for sometime as reference; the avenue is also appropriate to farmers because it is not as disruptive to farmers as would be the case if formal meetings were required by extension or project staff. The majority of households now own a mobile phone, (during a baseline survey that was conducted in the four pilot communities mid 2012, we found out that there was at least a mobile phone in 80% of farming households visited), thus, the use of SMS in communicating weather information guarantees wider delivery of information in a short time; use of the mobile phone also allows two-way communication and thus ensures quick delivery of feedback from the information users and SMSs are targeted to specific recipients (e.g. maize farmers, extension officers, cassava growers, etc), thus they are less prone to ambiguous interpretations by the recipients. Currently there is a proposal submitted to carry out the same project in Burundi.
8. Monitoring and evaluation
A post-season evaluation forum also formed an important component of this project during which project results for a specific season were evaluated. It may be noted that the yield obtained by the project ranged from 3 times as the lowest and over 20 times as highest scenario when community based climate information was provided and utilized by local communities. All participating farmers were closely involved in the implementation of the project activities with close supervision by local leadership and extension personnel. Maximum gains were recorded by Reru community under the leadership of the local priest. This has triggered some new private partnerships to produce millet/sorghum to support one of the beer industries in Kenya. Additionally, the project has triggered several new community based climate risk reduction pilot studies in other locations in Kenya and other IGAD member countries.

Author

Name: 
Jasper Bwesingwa
Address: 
10304-00100, Nairobi

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