Coping with Drought and Climate Change in Zimbabwe

05-08-2014
CwDCC Zimbabwe
01-10-2007 - 01-09-2012
This project aimed at enhancing the capacity of local people engaged in agriculture to adapt to climate variability and change through demonstration of a range of gender-sensitive approaches. Through this project, vulnerable farmers and pastoralists enhanced their livelihood strategies and resilience by increasing the use of mixed crops and enabling them to take up adapted crop and livestock management practices through demonstration.
Knowledge buildingCommunity participation and inclusivenessPolitical ownership, collaboration and approvalFinancial sustainabilityAchieving co-benefits and balancing trade-offBuilding local capacityTransferableMonitoring and evaluation
UNDP 2011

Around 70% of the population in Zimbabwe derive their livelihoods from rural activities, but only about a third of the country receives adequate rainfall for agriculture. Increased incidence of droughts over the last 30 years has led to significant losses in agricultural productivity, resulting in critical shortages in fuel and food.  In addition, maize production on the basis of rainfall is the dominant crop, whereas livestock production in communal areas is constrained by overgrazing in the wet season leading to shortage in the dry season. This project aimed at enhancing the capacity of local people engaged in agriculture to adapt to climate variability and change through demonstration of a range of gender-sensitive approaches. Through this project, vulnerable farmers and pastoralists enhanced their livelihood strategies and resilience by increasing the use of mixed crops and enabling them to take up adapted crop and livestock management practices through demonstration. The project helped improve food security by reducing reliance on one or two crop and on rain-fed agriculture, promoting the use of in-field rainwater after harvesting and drought-resistant to increase yields and shared use and management of wildlife resources (e.g. crocodile farming and fisheries development). A further aim was to enable vulnerable communities to use climate warning systems, which was achieved by developing a culture of using locally observed rainfall records to evaluate decisions about cultivation (e.g. when to plant, when to weed using cultivator and when to harvest), and weather forecasting, particularly for medium range (10-14 days). Overall, the project has helped develop national awareness about climate change, laying the technical foundation and contributing important field experience in Southern Zimbabwe and beyond.

1. Knowledge building
The project was part of a set of regional projects on Coping with Drought and Climate Change being implemented by UNDP (Ethiopia, Kenya and Mozambique), which has organised mechanisms for knowledge exchange that will contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of climate variability and appropriate responses in different parts of Africa. A number of organisations collaborated in different phases of the implementation of the project, contributing their knowledge and skills. These include Agritex (Agricultural, Technical and Extension Services), the Department of Research and Specialist Services of the national Environmental Management Agency of Zimbabwe, Parks and Wildlife Management Authority (on nature conservation, captive wildlife breeding and aquaculture), the Meteorological Services Department (on seasonal climate information), local research stations (Chirezi Research Station, on appropriate technologies; Matopos Research Station on small grains, livestock and small ruminants; Makoholi Research Station, on soil water conservation, livestock, grazing and fodder), and the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, on access to seeds and training for livestock management). The positive outcomes obtained by the project in Chiredzi, particularly in relation to climate change adaptation strategies (e.g. moisture conservation, crop diversification, use of drought-tolerant crop varieties, local seasonal forecasting and small-scale irrigation) have the potential to be mainstreamed, providing a model approach for national programs to address drought and climate change adaptation and to inform the new National Climate Change Strategy. The knowledge generated by the customised rainfall forecasting method created through project is already being routinely used by local authorities, research agencies, and NGOs to assist farmers in their decision-making on crop cultivation.
2. Community participation and inclusiveness
Participation of beneficiaries in local communities took place both in the design and implementation phases of the project. The project adopted a participatory, community-driven approach that allowed participants to establish priorities and determine implementation according to local capacities for appropriate adaptation measures. Farmers and households selected and tested climate change adaptation measures and were also engaged in the demonstration of agricultural processes and in improved livestock management. A participatory approach was also adopted for climate risk analysis, undertaken with local communities and other stakeholders, which enabled the gathering of pivotal information about the temporal and spatial dynamics of drought which might not have been obtained through modelling alone. Through the participatory approach, local people were able to opt for improving the efficiency of rain-fed crop and livestock production as a more socially acceptable, cost-effective and technically feasible climate adaptation strategy than irrigation development. The project also fostered gender equality, encouraging the participation of both men and women in project activities as well as ensuring that both men and women benefited from project interventions (e.g. training; demonstration). Similarly, measures were taken to ensure that poor and disadvantaged households participated and benefitted from project interventions and activities. Project implementation entailed piloting the cultivation of diverse crops (e.g. maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnuts and cowpeas) along with improved soil moisture management (e.g. tied ridges and deep plough furrows) which helped increase yields significantly, and cassava was successfully introduced as an adaptation option. In addition, nearly one third of farmers took up in-field rainwater harvesting, whilst abundant production of stover prevented livestock deaths in the 2009-2010 drought. The seasonal forecast methodology developed by the project has proved particularly useful in informing decision-making by farmers about planting and cropping density and timing of weeding activity with use of a cultivator. Overall, the project has improved food security for over 1000 households and enabled farmers to increase their awareness of climate change and the effects of drought.
3. Political ownership, collaboration and approval
The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Management in Zimbabwe was responsible for the implementation of the project (through its Environmental Management Agency), in collaboration with the UNDP, which highlights the fact that high-level political support was obtained for it. The project has the potential to make a substantial contribution to national strategies and programmes on climate change adaptation in Zimbabwe. It has brought to the fore the need to address climate change, its risks and adaptation opportunities, whilst providing a framework for implementing an adaptation strategy along with the opportunity for testing tools designed to enhance community resilience to climate change. Also, the new method for improved seasonal forecasting of rainfall introduced by the project may also make an important contribution towards more functional and reliable forecasting in Zimbabwe. Hence, the project has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of a national policy on climate change. The project falls in line with priorities identified in the 2007-2010 Zimbabwe United Nations Development Assistance Framework (ZUNDAF). These include increasing productivity in the agricultural sector, improving rural livelihoods and security of food and nutrition of households at the local level and also nationally, increasing environmental awareness and sustainable use and management of natural resources.
4. Financial sustainability
The project envisioned sustainability as obtaining chiefly from replication by a growing number of residents in the Chiredizi district and beyond, of the activities demonstrated at project sites, such as optimised crop diversification and livestock management, which have yielded high productivity and allowed higher incomes to be derived. Local involvement and the positive results obtained for food security and incomes is expected to drive demand for adaptation measures, its financial viability is highly likely to foster local interest and encourage further take-up, as farmers generally look for cost-effective measures to respond to drought. But it is necessary to ensure that seeds and cassava planting stock continues to be made available. Also, there is still a need for further commitment of funding to ensure the replication of measures that require higher management. This is the case, for instance, of the community irrigation system and orchard maintenance (i.e. the Tamuwanyika community gardens irrigation system), which may require centrally-allocated funding. But part of the income generated from successful project activities might also be set aside by farmer communities to offset costs associated with gaining continued access to extension workers or technical advisors. More importantly, there is scope for strengthening and consolidating the results of the Chiredzi project through allocation of resources by the Government of Zimbabwe that would leverage it into a model for climate change adaptation to be scaled up and replicated nationally and elsewhere in Africa. The project demonstrated that modest funding channeled to field operations and direct services to beneficiaries provide effective dissemination of adaptation measures.
5. Achieving co-benefits and balancing trade-off
Not applicable
6. Building local capacity
The project enabled capacity to be built locally through provision of training and through pilot demonstration (‘learning by doing’) to beneficiaries by extension workers (from Agritex). In Farmer Field Schools, residents learned techniques about mixed crop production, in-field irrigation and moisture conservation which they subsequently reproduced for themselves. At the institutional level, the climate change risk and vulnerability assessment undertaken by project implementers enabled a better understanding of climate change analyses by staff at different government agencies (e.g. Ministry of Natural Resource and Environmental Management, Ministry of Agriculture). Further capacity was built through compilation of technical manuals and continued training of extension staff.
7. Transferable
The cultivation of optimised crops enabled by the project may potentially benefit some 6,600 households in the Chiredzi District and, if scaled up, will benefit thousands more. Similarly, livestock management techniques introduced through the project may benefit around two-thirds of local households, and some 7440 households may also benefit from improvement in wildlife management. The replication of optimised crop production is being encouraged through Farmer Field Schools, a learning platform that enables farmers to learn about production methods through practices. Replication of best practices, in turn, have been encouraged through exchange visits to neighbouring farms, visits by policy makers and dissemination through public awareness campaigns. The crop and income diversification strategies and conservation farming methods have been gaining recognition and more and more farmers in the project area and vicinity are taking up most of the agricultural adaptation measures, particularly mixed crop cultivation, adopting crop varieties that are tolerant of drought, and moisture conservation. Famer recognition of the need to modify crop regimes and farming practices and acknowledgment of the opportunities for effective adaptation in the context of recurring drought in the Chiredzi District have been key drivers of learning and replication of adaptation measures.
8. Monitoring and evaluation
Monitoring was undertaken throughout the period of project implementation and evaluation was carried out at the end of implementation by independent consultants. Indicators of achievement of outcomes were designed prior to implementation and evaluated at the end. Key indicators include increase in agricultural productivity, number of service providers in Chiredzi making use of climate information in their operations, number of household by gender using adapted farm management practices, number of small-holders by gender making use of climate information in decision-making). Pivotal outcomes were achieved, particularly increased awareness of the role that crop diversification, moisture conservation and small-scale irrigation can play in enhancing resilience to climate change, along with development of methods that improve seasonal weather forecasting and reliable and accurate advice provided to farmers by extension workers. These achievements have rendered the project as largely successful with the potential for replication at the national, but this is subject to further refinement of the Chiredzi adaptation model. This would entail addressing outstanding issues that require a longer timeframe than that envisaged in the project, such as the reluctance of some farmers to commit fully to moisture conservation; meeting the management requirements of small-scale irrigation systems; ensuring the ongoing availability of seeds and planting stock for the crop varieties introduced by the project; and the financial viability of crocodile farming. Also, the non-agricultural and natural-based livelihood activities required much more substantive feasibility analysis along with technical guidance and expertise in order to achieve some of the expected outputs (e.g. crocodile farming).
Funding

Funding description

US$ 938,000 (UNDP/GEF/SCCF)

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